Shweta Kambale, Sanyukta Bhosale, Akash Redekar, Rohini Mhetar
UG Students, D.K.T.E. Society’s Textile and Engineering Institute, Ichalkaranji
This examination is planned to build up a comprehension of the impact of a number of web layers on qualities of needle punched polyester nonwoven fabric. Three diverse needle-punched nonwoven fabric tests were fabricated by fluctuating number of layers viz. 6, 8 and 10 with the end goal that the resultant areal density of fabric stays steady. Needle punched nonwoven fabric was fabricated from polyester staple fiber of length 80 mm. Other machine parameters like punch density (180 punches/cm2) and depth of penetration (8mm) were kept consistent. Exploratory outcomes demonstrate that with an expansion in a number of layers there is bit by bit increment in fabric thickness yet the porosity and air permeability diminishes. Be that as it may, fiber orientation turns out to be more arbitrary which is fundamental for powerful filtration execution of the fabric. There is no impact of an adjustment in a number of layers on the mechanical properties of fabric. An example having 10 layers has a superior filtration trademark that shows ideal thickness with wanted porosity and permeability with same areal density as that of different examples.
Keywords: Filtration, Orientation, Pore size, Mechanical properties, Web layers etc.
Nonwovens are the items made by parallel laid, cross-laid or heedlessly laid networks fortified by mechanical means or with the use of glues or thermoplastic fibers underutilization of warmth and pressure. The prominence of these fabrics is growing gigantically in perspective of its variable yet one of the kind properties. Nonwoven fabrics are call as tailor-influenced fabrics as we to can produce the fabric with liked properties. Fabrics properties of nonwovens extend fresh to that soft-to-the-touch to brutal, hard-to-tear to extraordinarily weak. This prompts a broad assortment of the things, for instance, nappies, channels, teabags, geo-materials; et cetera, some of which are solid and others are nonessential. Interchange properties are compressibility, adaptability. By applying distinctive culminations, the properties of nonwoven can be refreshed. They can be heatproof, hydrophobic, hydrophilic, wash and destructive protection and antagonistic to microbial.
There are assorted process parameters that are required to be set while producing a nonwoven fabric with any innovation. All these procedure parameters can influence the properties of the delivered fabric. By changing the procedure parameter, we can without much of a stretch modify the properties of the nonwoven fabric. To get wanted properties in the last thing it is basic to streamline the procedure parameters. Numerous investigations were done on the impact of depth of penetration and punch density on properties of needle punched nonwoven fabric and the impact of a number of layers isn’t tremendously investigated thus it is worth to think about the impact of quantities of layers on the properties of the needle punched nonwoven fabric by keeping GSM Constant.
This investigation will center around properties of needle-punched nonwoven by differing the number of layers keeping fabric areal density consistent. This parameter affects the properties of made nonwoven fabric that is dictated by describing the produced fabric tests.
2. Materials and Methods
In this examination, reused polyester filaments were utilized to fabricate nonwoven with needle punching innovation. Nonwoven fabric tests were produced utilizing web having three diverse number of layers viz. 6, 8 and 10 to such an extent that areal density of fabric stays unaltered. Other machine parameters like punch density (180 punches/cm2) and depth of penetration (8mm) were kept steady. Test runs appear in table 1.
Table 1 Sample runs
|Sample||Number of layers||Punch Density (Punches/cm2)||The depth of Penetration (mm)|
All the fabricated fabric tests were described in standard barometrical conditions for various properties, for example, areal density, thickness, fiber orientation, porosity, air permeability, bursting strength, tensile strength. Subsequent to testing properties of nonwoven tests, the acquired outcomes were broke down by utilizing one way ANOVA.
3. Result and Discussion
3.1 Areal Density and Fabric Thickness
The areal density (GSM) portrays the mass of material per unit territory of the material decided by ASTM D5261. It has been discovered that there is no critical impact of a number of layers of GSM fabric as the investigation is conveyed by keeping the GSM of fabric consistent.
The thickness of needle punched nonwoven fabric was tried by ISO 9073-2 standard on SDL Atlas advanced thickness analyzer. Fig. 1 demonstrates the impact number of layers on the thickness of polyester needle punched nonwoven fabric.
From fig. 1, it can be unmistakably observed that with an expansion in number layers from 6 to 10 there is 12.11% expansion in fabric thickness. The impact number of a layer of fabric thickness is noteworthy. This can be credited to the way that, a a number of layers expands the combination is somewhat poor and flawless conservativeness isn’t accomplished because of a steady depth of needle penetration. This outcome in the arrangement of voids between the fabric layers which prompts expanded loftiness of the fabric and assistant the thickness of the fabric. Henceforth without modifying any machine (punch density, depth of penetration, speed, and so forth.) and also a material parameter (type, amount, and so on.), we can change the fabric thickness just by expanding the number of web layers keeping resultant areal density consistent.
3.2 Pore Diameter
Porosity is the gross measure of open volume in the given nonwoven fabric. Pore measure appropriation is a pre-imperative to explore any vehicle wonders, particularly in a permeable incorporate filtration, separation .
Testing of pore size of needle punched nonwoven fabric was done by ASTM F316-03. The pore diameter was acquired regarding little, mean and extensive by porosity test technique. Figure 2 shows the impact of a number of layers on pore diameter of needle punched nonwoven fabric.
From fig. 2, it can be watched that as number of layers increments there is a decline in little, mean and additionally huge pore diameter. Nonetheless, this pattern isn’t noteworthy. One of the conceivable purposes for this pattern is covering of filaments. As the quantity of web layers increments, there is a more irregular game plan of filaments that causes covering of strands coming about enclosement of the pore. Due to enclosement of pores by resulting layers, there is a diminishment in pore diameter.
3.3 Bubble Point Pressure
It is a pressure over the fabric required to shape a bubble at first glance. It relies upon the fiber course of action and pore diameter. Figure 3 demonstrates the impact of a number of layers on bubble point pressure.
From figure 3, it is obviously induced that the bubble point pressure fundamentally increments as the quantity of layers increments. As number of layers expands the randomization in the fiber game plan builds which bring about covering of strands. This covering of strands has a tendency to lessen the pore diameter and makes it minimal. For the minimized structure of the fabric with little pore estimate, more pressure is required to drive liquid of certain volume through it. Henceforth, more pressure drop is there over the fabric having 10 layers as it has littler pore estimate. Bubble point pressure increments by 30% from NL6 to NL10 fabric.
3.4 Sectional Air Permeability (SAP)
Sectional air permeability is utilized to look at the permeability of various fabric tests. Air permeability does not demonstrate any association with fabric thickness. This is because of the reason that permeability of the fabric can be considered as far as the cross-sectional territory of every entire, depth of each opening per unit zone. It is possible that to the fabric may have same permeability. It is, along these lines, alluring to have figure free of thickness to speak to air receptiveness of fabric i.e. sectional air permeability characterized as air permeability of fabric . On TexTest-FX3300 machine, the testing of air permeability of nonwoven fabric is completed by ASTM D737-96 standard. The impact of a number of layers on air permeability of polyester needle punched nonwoven fabric appears in fig.4.
Fig. 4 gives the unmistakable thought that as number of layers builds sectional air permeability increments. The impact of number of layers on sectional air permeability is critical. In spite of the fact that air permeability does not appear to change with the thickness of fabric, the SAP changes proportionately with a thickness of fabric and a similar pattern was seen by Vinay Kumar Midha .
SAP diminishes with increment in fabric weight. While the expansion in number of layers, the fabric end up thicker. Despite the fact that the quantity of pores increments with increment in number of fiber, the pore estimate winds up littler. Most extreme pore measure dissemination and the diameter at greatest pore estimate conveyance increments as number of layers increments. SAP and thickness are adversely associated with noteworthy connection coefficient as appeared in both the diagrams.
3.5 Nonwoven Orientation
The orientation of fiber that is in the nonwoven structure is a key component of the path or level of orientations that influence the property, for example, tensile strength and extension. The course of action of strands in nonwoven is depicted by the fiber pressing game plan as well as by fiber directional game plan that is fiber orientation. The web structure assumes a noteworthy part in deciding the physical normal for needle punched fabric. Needle punched fabric is centered around weight consistency that is MD and CD .
The testing of nonwoven orientation is carried on lazing instrument NOS 200 machine by in-house strategy. The impact of a number of layers on fiber orientation appears if fig. 5.
There is a huge impact of a number of layers on fiber orientation. Fiber orientation increments as a number of layers increments. There is 169.60% expansion in the orientation from a number of layer 6 to number of layer 10. There is a huge impact of a number of layers on the nonwoven orientation of the fabric. As the quantity of layers builds the randomization of the of the strands increment which is spoken to by MD/CD ratio. The randomization is because of more number of filaments are laid in an alternate bearing for steady GSM of the fabric.
3.6 Tensile Strength
Mechanical properties of the material are critical where the material is subjected to stacking amid its execution. The tensile strength of needle-punched nonwoven is tried by ISO 9073-3 standard on Instron 5967.
From fig. 6, we can presume that there is no critical impact of a number of layers on the tensile strength of fabric both in the machine course and cross-bearing. There is no huge impact of a number of layers on breaking heap of the fabric. This is on the grounds that all the fabric tests were produced by keeping steady areal density. Due to which the heap bearing segment per unit zone of fabric stays same in the unit zone. Thus, tensile properties are unaffected.
Fig. 7 shows the impact of a number of layers on the extensibility of tests.
From fig. 7, it can be watched that there is no huge impact of a number of layers on the extension of the fabric i.e. drift is vague. This pattern is because of reality that more randomized orientation. This randomized orientation prompts uniform dissemination of the heap toward all path.
3.8 MD/CD Ratio
MD/CD ratio is the pointer of an anisotropic normal for fabric. From MD/CD ratio, we come to think about directional impacts. Fiber orientation influences this ratio. Fig. 8 demonstrates the impact of a number of layers on the MD/CD steadiness ratio of fabric.
There is no noteworthy impact of a number of layers on MD/CD ratio. Fabric demonstrates comparable properties in the machine and additionally cross heading. This is a direct result of expanded fiber randomization.
3.9 Bursting strength
The bursting strength of needle punched nonwoven fabric was conveyed with ISO 9073-2 standard. Fig. 9 demonstrates impact number of a layer on bursting strength of the fabric.
As we find in the fig.9, there is no critical impact of a number of layers on bursting strength of the fabric. It is the verifiable truth that with an expansion in weight, there is an expansion in bursting strength however in this, the GSM of fabric is steady consequently there is no huge impact on bursting strength. The other reason can be given as the rate distinction is the base from a number of layer 6 to number of layer 10 i.e. 0.64%. That there is no critical impact of a number of layers on bursting strength of the fabric.
With the expansion in a number of web layers fiber orientation turn out to be more arbitrary and builds fiber covering. Expanded fiber covering at a higher number of web layers encases pores coming about decreased pore diameter. Bubble point pressure increments with increment in a number of layers. Because of consistent weight per unit, a territory the heap bearing part stays steady so tensile properties stay unaltered. By expanding a number of web layers, there is a huge change in auxiliary attributes of polyester needle punched nonwoven fabric. In any case, mechanical attributes stay unaltered. Consequently, we can plan a fabric of wanted filtration qualities without modifying different properties. An example having 10 layers has a superior filtration trademark that shows ideal thickness with wanted porosity and permeability with same areal density.
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